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Wednesday, April 3, 2013

Mil Mi-24

Mil Mi-24 (kode NATO: Hind) merupakan helikopter tempur dan pengangkut buatan Uni Soviet. Helikopter ini mulai dioperasikan pada tahun 1976 oleh Soviet, dan saat ini masih dipakai oleh 30 negara lainnya.

Kode NATO untuk helikopter ini adalah Hind, dan variannya diidentifikasikan dengan menambahkan huruf. Versi ekspor helikopter ini, Mi-25 dan Mi-35, disebut Hind D dan Hind E. Pilot Soviet menyebut helikopter ini летающий танк (letayushiy tank, atau tank terbang). Nama julukan lazim lainnnya adalah Крокодил (krokodil, atau buaya), karena bentuk dan warna kamuflasenya.

Karakteristik
Dasar helikopter ini dikembangkan dari Mil Mi-8, yaitu dengan dua mesin turboshaft yang memutar lima bilah baling-baling 17,5 meter utama dan tiga bilah baling-baling belakang. Posisi mesinnya menghasilkan dua saluran udara yang khas, selain itu, versi D dan selanjutnya memiliki kokpit ganda berbentuk gelembung yang membuatnya mudah dikenali.
Mi-24D milik pusat pengetesan dan evaluasi Angkatan Darat Amerika Serikat.

Penempatan senjata dilakukan pada sayap pendek, yang juga berfungsi memberikan dorongan terbang, dimana setiap sayap memiliki tiga titik penempatan. Badan helikopter memiliki lapisan pelindung yang tebal, dan baling-balingnya yang terbuat dari titanium yang tahan tembakan sampai kaliber 12,7 mm. Kokpit helikopter dibuat kedap udara agar tahan dalam kondisi NBC. Mi-24 menggunakan tiga roda pendaratan yang dapat dimasukkan ke dalam badan. Sebagai helikopter angkut dan tempur, Mi-24 belum memiliki helikopter NATO yang sejenis.

Spesifikasi (Mi-24)
Orthographic projection of the Mil Mi-24.
Karakteristik umum

    Kru: 3 (pilot, perwira persenjataan, teknisi)
    Kapasitas: 8 prajurit atau 4 tandu
    Panjang: 17,5 m
    Diameter baling-baling: 17,3 m
    Tinggi: 6,5 m
    Luas piringan: 235 m²
    Bobot kosong: 8.500 kg
    Bobot maksimum lepas landas: 12.000 kg
    Mesin: 2× turbin Isotov TV3-117, 1.600 kW masing-masing

Kinerja

    Laju maksimum: 335 km/h (208 mph)
    Jarak jangkau: 450 km
    Batas tertinggi servis: 4.500 m

Persenjataan

    12,7 mm YaKB-12.7 Yakushev-Borzov multi-barrel machinegun
    1500 kg bom
    4× Peluru kendali anti tank (AT-2 Swatter atau AT-6 Spiral)
    4× 57 mm S-5 rocket pod atau 4× 80 mm S-8 rocket pod
    2× 23 mm meriam dua laras atau
    4× tangki bahan bakar eksternal


Mil Mi-24 (Mi-35 untuk versi ekspor, termasuk milik PENERBAD TNI-AD), banyak nickname untuk helikopter serbu ini, diantaranya "hind", "flying tank", or летающий танк (letayushchiy tank), "Crocodile" (Крокодил or Krokodil), "Glass" (Стакан or Stakan), "Shaitan-Arba" (Satan's Chariot) julukan ini dikarenakan oleh performanya, dan bentuknya yang sangat buruk, berbeda dengan helikopter serbu dari barat yang biasanya bentuknya rapi dan ganteng, khusus yang satu ini sangat buruk, ada beberapa catatan tentang keburuk rupaannya dan performanya, antara lain:

The Soviets brought what they called the “Crocodile” to Afghanistan to fight the pesky Mujahideen. The Russians had observed the use of helicopter-borne troops in Vietnam. The US Army used the Huey as a transport, and a stripped-down “slick” version as a fighting escort. The Hind was supposed to be both an attack and transport helicopter. There is room for eight soldiers in the cargo bay, complete with gun ports in the side of the hull. In practice the cargo bay was typically used to carry a mechanic and repair supplies instead of soldiers so that the vehicle could rebase itself in remote places.

The Hind is notoriously ugly and menacing. Over 55 feet long, very narrow, and almost 20 feet high it is about as big as a Huey. The wings provide some lift and are used to mount rocket pods and anti-tank missiles. The breast-like objects above the cockpit are intake filters, necessary in dusty Afghanistan. The tube sticking out of the side up near the engine is an exhaust pipe, a tasty bull’s eye for heat-seeking anti-aircraft missiles. Eventually these were covered up. The Hind was fast and powerful in its day, but not terribly maneuverable. The rotors were so long that they sometimes hit the tail pylon, destroying the vehicle. Later versions shortened the rotors a little.

Mujahideen hated and feared what they called “Shaitan-Arba” or Satan’s Chariot. The Hind was heavily armored, had titanium reinforced rotors, and was difficult to shoot down with small-caliber weapons. Mujahideen traveled very light, on foot or by donkey and horse, so they lacked weapons that could damage the Hind. The Hind operated during the day, encouraging the Mujahideen to move and fight at night. Unlike jets, which fly over for a second, drop their bombs and leave, the Hind could hover over Mujahideen, carefully dropping bombs and gunning them down. In an apathetic and unmotivated Red Army, it was the Spetnaz commandos and the Crocodile pilots who swaggered and fought with aggression and high moral.

To change these conditions the United States gave Mujahideen the Stinger shoulder-fired anti-aircraft missile. Three hundred and thirty-three Hinds were lost. Many still lie broken and rusting, dotting the countryside alongside tanks and trucks. Once a powerful symbol of the brute force the Soviets brought to Afghanistan, they now remind Afghans that high-tech armies can be vulnerable.

After a brutal learning curve in the face of Afghan rebels, Mi-24 pilots learned to be dangerous themselves, and the rebels called the Mi-24 "Shaitan-Arba" (Satan's Chariot)". In one case, an Mi-24 pilot who was out of ammunition managed to rescue a company of infantry by maneuvering aggressively towards Mujahideen guerrillas and scaring them off. The Mi-24 was popular with ground troops, since it could stay on the battlefield and provide fire as needed, while "fast mover" strike jets could only stay for a short time before heading back to base to refuel.

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