Friday, July 5, 2013
Manusia Tanpa Makan dan Minum Selama 70 Tahun
Berapa lama tubuh manusia mampu bertahan tanpa makanan dan minuman? Rata-rata manusia bisa bertahan tanpa makan selama 50 hari dan rekor terlama tanpa makan saat ini adalah 74 hari.
Tapi di India seorang lelaki usia 82 tahun bernama Prahlad Jani mengaku tidak pernah makan dan minum selama 70 tahun. Dengan tanpa makan dan minum, Jani mampu bertahan hidup dan bisa menjalaninya dengan baik.
Karena keunikan tubuhnya itu, lelaki tua itu kini sedang diteliti militer India. Jani sedang diisolasi di sebuah rumah sakit dikawasan Ahmedabad, Gurjarat.
Selama 6 hari masa isolasi itu, Jani sama sekali tidak pernah menyentuh makanan dan minuman serta tidak menunjukkan tanda-tanda penurunan stamina atau dehidrasi.
Riset yang dilakukan India's Defence Research Development Organisation itu, masih terus melakukan monitoring secara tertutup terhadap Jani. Periset menduga Jani memiliki sesuatu yang asli di tubuhnya yang tidak dimiliki orang lain, yang dengan itu mampu menyelamatkan nyawanya tanpa makan dan minum.
India's Defence Research Development Organisation adalah organisasi militer India yang memiliki ilmuwan pembuat pesawat jet, rudal balistik antar benua serta beberapa jenis bom baru.
Ilmuwan percaya, Jani dapat mengajarkan militer bagaimana membantu prajurit agar bisa bertahan lama tanpa makanan atau bertahan dari bencana sampai bantuan tiba.
"Jika hasil penemuan ini bisa diverifikasi, ini akan menjadi terobosan dalam dunia kedokteran," kata Dr G Ilavazhagan, direktur The Defence Institute of Physiology & Allied Sciences seperti dilansir dari Telegraph.
"Jika hasil penelitian ini berhasil, kami bisa membantu orang-orang yang mengalami bencana, masalah penyakit ketinggian, perjalanan laut dan alam yang ekstrem. Kami juga bisa mendidik masyarakat tentang teknik-teknik bertahan hidup dalam kondisi yang buruk tanpa ada makanan dan minuman sama sekali," lanjutnya.
Jani mengaku meninggalkan rumah saat berusia 7 tahun dan hidup mengembara sebagai sadhu (pertapa dalam agama Hindu) atau orang suci di Rajasthan. Jani dianggap sebagai 'breatharian' yang dapat hidup dengan hanya melakoni kekuatan spiritual.
Jani sendiri percaya dia mampu bertahan karena bantuan magis dewa yang menurutnya menuangkan suatu obat mujarab melalui lubang di langit-langit mulutnya.
Pengakuannya itu telah didukung oleh seorang dokter India yang spesial mempelajari orang-orang yang memiliki kemampuan supranatural. Meski begitu, Jani juga kerap ditolak masyarakat dan dianggap melakukan penipuan.
Selama masa isolasi 6 hari ini, selain tidak makan dan minum, Jani juga tidak pernah buang air kecil atau buang air besar. Jani tetap bugar dan sehat dan tidak menunjukkan tanda-tanda kelemahan.
Dokter rencananya akan mengamatinya selama 15 hari dan akan melihat apakah ada otot-otot yang rusak, dehidrasi yang serius, penurunan berat badan, kelelahan atau kegagalan organ.
Prahlad Jani, also known as "Mataji", is an Indian sadhu (born Chunriwala Mataji, August 13, 1929 in Charada, Mehsana district). He claims to have lived without food and water since 1940, and says that the goddess Amba sustains him.
Born with the name Chunriwala Mataji, Jani grew up in Charada village in Mehsana district. According to Jani, he left his home in Rajasthan at the age of seven, and went to live in the jungle.
At the age of 11, Jani underwent a religious experience and became a follower of the Hindu goddess Amba. From that time, he had chosen to dress as a female devotee of Amba, wearing a red sari-like garment, jewellery and crimson flowers in his shoulder-length hair. Jani is commonly known as Mataji ("[a manifestation of] The Great Mother"). Jani believes that the goddess provides him a liquid sustenance or water, which drops down through a hole in his palate, allowing him to live without food or water.
Since the 1970s, Jani has been living as a hermit in a cave in the rainforest near to the Gujarati temple of Ambaji, awakening at 4am each day and spending most of his time meditating.
Two observation studies of Jani have been conducted, one in 2003 and one in 2010, both involving Sudhir Shah, a neurologist at the Sterling Hospitals in Ahmedabad, India, who studies people claiming exceptional spiritual abilities (see Hira Ratan Manek). In 2010, the study was led by Dr. G Ilavazhagan of DIPAS, DRDO, and a panel of specialists from different medical disciplines. In both cases the investigators confirmed Jani's ability to survive healthily without food and water during the testing periods, although as of 2010, none of Shah's investigations into such abilities had been discussed in a scientific journal. When questioned six days into the 2010 experiment, the DRDO spokesperson announced that the study's findings would be "confidential" until results were established, and a further official press release by the team stated that any inside analysis information may be disclosed only at the discretion of the principal investigator, DIPAS. Uninvolved doctors and other critics have questioned the validity of the studies and observed that although people can survive for days without food or water, it is not possible to survive for years.
In 2003, Sudhir Shah and other physicians at Sterling Hospitals, Ahmedabad, India observed Jani for ten days. He stayed in a sealed room and was given only 100 milliliters of water to use as mouthwash each day. Doctors say that he passed no urine or stool during the observation, but that urine appeared to form in the bladder. A hospital spokesperson said that Jani was physically normal, but noted that a hole in the palate was an abnormal condition. The fact that Jani's weight dropped slightly during the 10 days has cast some doubt on his claim to go indefinitely without food.
From April 22 until May 6, 2010, Prahlad Jani was again observed and tested by Sudhir Shah and a team of 35 researchers from the Indian Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences (DIPAS), as well as other organizations. The director of DIPAS said that the results of the observations could "tremendously benefit mankind", as well as "soldiers, victims of calamities and astronauts", all of whom may have to survive without food or water for long spells. The tests were again conducted at Sterling Hospitals. Professor Anil Gupta of SRISTI, involved in monitoring the tests, described the team as being "intrigued" by Jani's kriyas apparently allowing him to control his body's physiological functions.
The team studied Jani with daily clinical examinations, blood tests, and scans. Round-the-clock surveillance was reportedly followed using multiple CCTV cameras and personal observation. The researchers say that Jani was taken out of the sealed room for tests and exposure to sun under continuous video recording. According to the researchers, Jani's only contact with any form of fluid was said to be during gargling and occasional bathing starting from the 5th day of observation, and the toilet in Jani's room was sealed to test his claim that he did not need to urinate or defecate.
After fifteen days of observation during which he reportedly did not eat, drink or go to the toilet, all medical tests on Jani were reported as normal and researchers described him as being in better health than someone half his age. The doctors reported that although the amount of liquid in Jani's bladder fluctuated and that Jani appeared "able to generate urine in his bladder", he did not pass urine. Based on Jani's reported levels of leptin and ghrelin, two appetite-related hormones, DRDO researchers posited that Jani may be demonstrating an extreme form of adaptation to starvation and water restriction.
In an update, DIPAS has stated that further studies are being conducted to get answers to questions such as how metabolic waste material is eliminated from his body, from where he gets his energy for sustenance, and how he maintains his hydration status.
It has been declared that further observations of Jani are planned.
Dr. Michael Van Rooyen, director of the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, dismissed the observation results as "impossible", observing that the bodies of profoundly malnourished people quickly consume their own body's resources, resulting in liver failure, tachycardia and heart strain. A spokeswoman for the American Dietetic Association remarked that the human body could survive on water alone, although not healthily, and that a person could not expect to meet their body's vitamin and mineral requirements without ingesting food. Nutrition researcher Peter Clifton also disagrees with study results. He accused the research team of "cheating" by allowing Jani to gargle and bathe, stating that a human of average weight would die after "15 to 20 days" without water. People who avoid food and water to emulate mystical figures often die. Sanal Edamaruku characterized the experiment as a farce for allowing Jani to move out of the CCTV cameras' field of view, claiming that video footage showed Jani was allowed to receive devotees and to leave the sealed test room for sunbathing. Edamaruku also said that the gargling and bathing activities were insufficiently monitored, and that he was denied access to the site where the tests were conducted in both 2003 and 2010. He accuses Jani of having "influential protectors" responsible for denying Edamaruku permission to inspect the project during its operation, despite having been invited to join the test during a live television broadcast. The Indian Rationalist Association stated that individuals making similar claims in the past have been exposed as frauds.
In September 2010, Dr Shah announced that scientists from Austria and Germany had offered to visit India to carry out further research on Jani, and scientists from the United States had also offered to join the research. Jani has expressed interest in cooperating in further investigations.
Television, video and public appearances
In 2006, The Discovery Channel aired a documentary called "The Boy with Divine Powers" featuring a five minute interview with Jani and Shah. In 2010, the Independent Television Network (ITN) posted an article and video featuring Prahlad Jani, commenting on the 2010 tests. In 2010 Prahlad Jani was featured in an Austrian documentary "Am Anfang war das Licht" (English title In the Beginning There Was Light).
In October 2010, the Italian television station Rai 2 broadcast a program named "Voyager" which presented an extensive report on Prahlad Jani and the tests.
As reported by DNA India, on 18th October 2011 Jani was a param pujya (master of ceremony) in a large shobha yatra performed near Gandhinagar (1000 paaths of goddess Durga were chanted)
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